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ACE-inhibitors – pharmacological products used to treat various cardiovascular diseases. They are specifically employed for the treatment of arterial hypertension.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) it includes various events in which coronary arteries are affected by acute occlusion/contraction. Main clinical expression are: unstable angina, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, sudden death.

Acute myocardial infarction – death of the cardiac muscle due to an occlusion of the coronary arteries. This is a widespread pathological condition, particularly relevant across the globe, as it deeply affects the patient's health status and prognosis.

Albumin – a plasma protein part of the blood circulation. It carries out fundamental functions, among which being responsible of the colloidal osmotic pressure of the blood, while serving also as a transport protein.

Albuminuria – presence of plasma albumin in the urine, which should not occur in normal conditions. Usually, it is an early indicator of renal or heart disease and it can be observed in relevant cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Angina pectoris – a pain that might vary in intensity and location, it can be a sudden violent event that usually affects the chest area. However, it may manifest itself also in the nearby area or in different body areas like jugular, throat, low part of the neck, jaw, epigastrium.

Atrial fibrillation – sinus rhythm pathological change: the normal sinus rhythm is altered as well as the synchronized electric action of the heart. AF is mainly perceived as palpitations (i.e., abnormal heartbeat).